Abstract:  Women constitute the majority of rural dwellers experiencing the worst effects of while carrying the responsibility of securing a living for their . Historically, rural women have practised a multiplicity of livelihoods that have always remained and less effective in cash income. However, well-intended state interventions through Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP) for women’s empowerment have instead removed women from their of survivalist livelihoods without offering them the necessary enabling conditions to establish independent biographies for of ‘modern’ cash generating strategies. Based on a systematic sample of 177 households and interviews with women in Ga-Ramogale, this article concludes that PAP have, rather than women for sustainable participation in rural development, deepened their poverty and deprivation by enticing them away from the practice of livelihoods for which they had developed experience, skills and knowledge over years, and thereby effectively engendering increased reliance on dependency- livelihoods.

The rest is here: Rural Women’s Survivalist Livelihoods and State Interventions in Ga-Ramogale Village, Limpopo Province

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