The impact of R&D teams’ gender diversity on innovation outputs

The impact of R&D teams’ gender diversity on innovation outputs
Juan Fernández Sastre
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2015) pp. 142 – 162
Drawing from a sample of Spanish manufacturing firms, this paper examines the effect of R&D teams’ gender diversity on different innovation outputs: products, services, process and organisational innovations. The paper argues that some innovations are best positioned to capitalise the benefits of gender diversity, because of the greater relevance of market insight and personal interactions. Allowing for systematic correlations among the different innovation outcomes, results indicate that, although the relationship between gender diversity and innovation outputs has always the shape of an inverted-U, gender diversity produces a greater impact on service and organisational innovation than in process innovation, while its greatest effect is on product innovation. Results also indicate that having R&D teams with diverse functional expertise has more potential than having a gender diverse R&D labour force, except for service innovation for which gender diversity is as relevant as functional diversity.

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Men and women in IT entrepreneurship: consolidating and deconstructing gender stereotypes

Men and women in IT entrepreneurship: consolidating and deconstructing gender stereotypes
Martina McDonnell; Chantal Morley
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2015) pp. 41 – 61
Information technology (IT) plays a major role in entrepreneurship as a source of innovation and for the development of e-business activities. Recent initiatives, namely in Europe and the USA, encourage women to develop IT and web businesses. However, the gender imbalance remains, mainly due to persistent stereotypes (Clayton et al., 2012; Gupta et al., 2013). The main purpose of our research is to investigate whether stereotypes concerning gender and IT entrepreneurship are perpetuated or undermined amongst generation Y. Assuming that social differences between women and men are socially constructed, we adopted a constructionist and structurationist view to explain how gender stereotypes are broken down or reinforced. We conducted empirical research with male and female students participating in an entrepreneurial competition for entry into a business incubator. Our study suggests that subtle gendering processes, which we term ‘gender stereotyping moves’, can affect the stability of gender stereotypes. A typology of consolidation and deconstruction moves is provided, and two illustrations of structuring moves in practice are discussed.

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The role of trust as mediator between contract, information and knowledge within business incubators

The role of trust as mediator between contract, information and knowledge within business incubators
Benjamin Vedel; Inès Gabarret
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 23, No. 4 (2014) pp. 509 – 527
The relationship between the incubator team and the tenants is very important to the success of the incubation process. A good relationship is based on cooperation and both parties need to be committed (Rice, 2002). From a monitoring point of view, incubator managers can use two mechanisms to build good relationships with their tenants: the contract and trust. We analysed 177 incubated firms using multiple regression analysis and a structural equation methodology. Our results show that trust acts as a mediator between the contract and both information disclosure and knowledge acquisition.

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Toward a balanced framework to evaluate and improve the internal functioning of non-profit economic development business incubators. A study in Belgium

Toward a balanced framework to evaluate and improve the internal functioning of non-profit economic development business incubators. A study in Belgium
Johanna Vanderstraeten; Paul Matthyssens; Arjen Van Witteloostuijn
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 23, No. 4 (2014) pp. 478 – 508
Non-profit organisations, such as economic development incubators, may adapt the balanced scorecard and strategy map in their efforts to improve their internal functioning. In this paper, we employ qualitative research among non-profit economic development incubators in Antwerp, Belgium, to modify these tools. By adapting these frameworks, we extend the current incubator literature where predominantly individual measures (such as tenant survival or the incubator’s occupancy rate) are employed to evaluate incubator performance. Incubator managers and their funding organisations may use our adapted strategy map and balanced scorecard to uncover the incubator’s internal processes that need improvement. The evaluation tools allow them to go beyond the objective and individual performance measures that often are used to evaluate the incubator’s performance. The tools can also be used to benchmark several incubators and help funding organisations to make more informed resource allocation decisions.

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Supporting the open innovation process in small and medium enterprises

Supporting the open innovation process in small and medium enterprises
Gemma Kearney; Lynn-Sayers McHattie
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 23, No. 4 (2014) pp. 552 – 567
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) encounter specific barriers in engaging in innovation. This paper explores the concept of open innovation and how best conditions conducive to this can be created to support SMEs to engage in innovation. It presents chiasma – innovation workshops – as a method towards a collaborative approach that brings together SMEs, designers and academics. Design in action (DiA) is a knowledge exchange hub, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, which draws together six universities and art schools across Scotland. Adopting a qualitative approach, the paper presents an ongoing process, whereby the approach emerges from action research in conversation with the actors involved.

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A quest for global entrepreneurs: the importance of cultural intelligence on commitment to entrepreneurial education

A quest for global entrepreneurs: the importance of cultural intelligence on commitment to entrepreneurial education
Marilyn M. Helms; Raina M. Rutti; Melanie Lorenz; Jase Ramsey; Craig E. Armstrong
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 23, No. 3 (2014) pp. 385 – 404
This article extends the management construct of cultural intelligence (CQ) to the entrepreneurship literature by examining CQ in the context of commitment to entrepreneurial education as a proxy for entrepreneurial intentions. Using a convenience sample of students enrolled in an entrepreneurship class, we investigated the relationships of international experience, CQ and commitment to entrepreneurial education. Our findings suggest international experience is positively related to CQ (H1) and CQ is positively related to commitment to entrepreneurial education (H2). Additionally, CQ mediates the relationship between international experience and commitment (H3). This research demonstrates the usefulness of CQ within the entrepreneurial context in the expanding global economy. Discussion and areas for future research focus on further testing of the proposed relationships in other entrepreneurial populations. Also, implications for entrepreneurial training and education related to increasing CQ through study and travel/living/working abroad should be explored.

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Impact of Demographic Factors on Technological Orientations of BOP Entrepreneurs in Ghana

International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, Ahead of Print.

The study explores relationship between technological orientations and demographics of bottom of the pyramid (BOP) entrepreneurs in Ghana. The study reviewed literature on the BOP concept. Based on the reviewed literature, hypotheses were developed for testing. Data was collected from 287 micro-entrepreneurs using a structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. The study found some relationships between technology acceptance, connectivity to networks and entrepreneurial demographics. This provides the information necessary for information communications technology (ICT) and technology companies seeking to expand to these new markets as top of the pyramid markets saturate.
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