Impact of Demographic Factors on Technological Orientations of BOP Entrepreneurs in Ghana

International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, Ahead of Print.

The study explores relationship between technological orientations and demographics of bottom of the pyramid (BOP) entrepreneurs in Ghana. The study reviewed literature on the BOP concept. Based on the reviewed literature, hypotheses were developed for testing. Data was collected from 287 micro-entrepreneurs using a structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. The study found some relationships between technology acceptance, connectivity to networks and entrepreneurial demographics. This provides the information necessary for information communications technology (ICT) and technology companies seeking to expand to these new markets as top of the pyramid markets saturate.
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The Vital Entrepreneurial Learning Organization: A Corporate Mindset for Entrepreneurial Change Management

International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, Ahead of Print.

A globally competitive technology business environment requires a dual perspective for entrepreneurial change management to secure long-term and short-term vitality in mature organizations. Entrepreneurial organizations should shape the environment-organization relation and pursue entrepreneurial activities in new businesses and in existing businesses to integrate efficiency, innovation and adaptation. The presented concept of a vital entrepreneurial learning organization describes a systematic theoretical framework for firm-level entrepreneurship in dynamic environments. The theoretical constructs developed on theoretical exploration are: nine design elements of holistic intrapreneurship, three entrepreneurial tasks and process model, role model for the entrepreneurial organization, conceptual framework of the business environment, qualitative systems model for entrepreneurial change management, and five organizational learning elements. These theoretical building blocks provide new insights into the nature of holistic intrapreneurship.
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Stimulating learning about social entrepreneurship through income generation projects

Abstract

Purpose – This empirical paper examines the use of income generation projects as a pedagogic method to assess students’ learning about social enterprises. We are interested in how and why this innovative approach might improve students’ understanding of the different aspects and attributes of social entrepreneurship.Design/methodology/approach – Our study used thematic analysis of qualitative data comprising the reflective logs of 87 students on an undergraduate entrepreneurship module in a university business programme. The major attributes of social entrepreneurship were identified from a review of literature, and we used the logs to judge whether students had learnt about these attributes.Findings – Our results show that students developed an understanding concerning social enterprises’ diverse stakeholder environment, market needs, social enterprises’ ideological foundations, resource mobilisation processes and performance measurement – both social and financial. In addition, they developed skills in reflection and self-awareness, communication, empathy and the generation of new ideas.Research limitations/implications – Our study is limited in that it focused on only one cohort of students, undergraduates. We cannot claim that our findings are generalisable to other students or contexts. Practical implications – Students are better able to understand the needs and values of social enterprises. However, this is a resource intensive process for educators with implications for curriculum design and management. Originality/value – This study sheds new light on how experiential learning in the form of income generation projects helps to raise students’ awareness of social enterprises. Its value lies in helping to develop a novel and effective pedagogy for entrepreneurial learning
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Developing self-facilitating learning networks for entrepreneurs: a guide to action

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Developing self-facilitating learning networks for entrepreneurs: a guide to action
John Power; Eileen Sinnott; Bill O’Gorman; Nerys Fuller-Love
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2014) pp. 334 – 354
A longitudinal study conducted over a three-year period established six learning networks consisting of 105 entrepreneurs and SME owner/managers. The principal objective of the study was to uncover the critical elements that ensure networks operate effectively in order to advise and inform on practice for the creation of sustainable self-facilitated learning networks. The methodological approach adopted for this study was primarily direct participant observation. Findings provide a guide to action for the development of self-facilitated sustainable learning networks. This paper makes a significant contribution to practice providing knowledge on how to create sustainable learning networks thus having implications for entrepreneurs, government, policy-makers and academics interested in understanding how to effectively guide the development of sustainable learning networks for entrepreneurs to solve their own problems. This paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and applied significance.

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The effect of corruption on entrepreneurship in developed vs non-developed countries

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the relationship between corruption and productive entrepreneurship in general and whether it depends on countries’ specific characteristics in particular. Design/methodology/approach – The authors used a unique data set of entrepreneurial activity within 176 countries, collected from the professional networking site LinkedIn. The authors used OLS regression to estimate the level of entrepreneurship. The main independent variable was the CPI score (Transparency International). In addition, two sub-samples were used, 70 less-developed countries and 34 OECD countries, and numerous control variables. Findings – The paper makes three important contributions to the field. First, it proposes worldwide empirical evidence that countries with high levels of corruption usually face low levels of productive entrepreneurship. Second, the paper suggests that the negative effect is much more significant in developed countries than in developing countries. Third, the paper explores whether the negative effect of corruption depends on country-specific economic characteristics. Research limitations/implications – While there is significant value in using LinkedIn data in entrepreneurship research, there are limitations to this database. Therefore, significant robustness tests were employed and further research, for instance using longitudinal LinkedIn data, could be valuable. Moreover, using different entrepreneurs’ data sets might increase the validation of the results. Finally, further examination of the influence of corruption on different types of entrepreneurial activities and their interaction with different characteristics of the country is still required. Originality/value – The results stress the need to fight corruption not only in developing countries and suggests significant gains from anti-corruption efforts even and maybe especially in the western developed world.
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Cognitive consequences of business shut down. The case of Ugandan repeat entrepreneurs

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the cognitive and motivational consequences of a business failure, and their relation with subsequent start up success. The paper hypothesizes that if previous business failure was attributed to an internal and stable cause, subsequent business would be less successful compared to where an entrepreneur attributed business failure to an internal and unstable cause. Design/methodology/approach – The authors reviewed the literature on attribution theory in an achievement context and derived a hypothesis about the relation between causal thinking and subsequent business success. A survey amongst entrepreneurs in Uganda was carried out to yield insights on how attributions to past performance influence subsequent business performance. Findings – Entrepreneurs who attributed previous business failure to an internal, stable cause were found to be less successful in subsequent business start up. When repeat entrepreneurs attribute previous shut down to a lack of ability, they are less successful in a subsequent business start up. However, attributing the failure to a lack of effort, does not affect subsequent business success. Originality/value – The study reaffirms the importance of attributional thinking in entrepreneurship and provides empirical evidence on the relationship between the way entrepreneurs think about their previous performance and subsequent performance. Attributional thinking influences subsequent business actions and outcomes, which offers important practical applications. For instance training to change attributions of entrepreneurs may be used to influence their eventual performance.
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Building innovation networks in science-based young firms: the selection of knowledge sources

Building innovation networks in science-based young firms: the selection of knowledge sources
Cristina Sousa; Margarida Fontes
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2014) pp. 370 – 390
The paper investigates the strategic choices made by young science-based firms regarding the selection of knowledge sources. Data collected on Portuguese biotechnology firms are analysed with a view to answer to two research questions: whether, to what extent and in which conditions science-based entrepreneurs activate their social capital and/or build new knowledge relationships at start-up; whether and to what extent the knowledge relationships established at start-up persist and/or the firm builds relationships with new organisations. The results confirm the importance attributed to tie persistence but they also show that science-based firms need to search for new knowledge sources from the very early stages. Thus, their start-up behaviour departs from the one often depicted by the entrepreneurship literature, that emphasises the mobilisation of the entrepreneurs’ social capital. Results also show that persistence of ties established at start-up is lower than would be expected.

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