Screening for start-up potential in universities and research institutions – or how to map invisible innovation potentials

Screening for start-up potential in universities and research institutions – or how to map invisible innovation potentials
Fritjof Karnani; Reinhard Schulte
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, Vol. 12, No. 1/2/3 (2013) pp. 62 – 77
The discussion about spin-offs from the public research sector is generally limited to the case where findings of a research project are brought to market by scientists within the scope of a company start-up. This perception does not do justice to the start-up scene or the start-up potential of public research. The majority of scientific start-ups use knowledge beyond research findings, starting companies in the shadow of publications by academic institutions and drawing from the realm of tacit knowledge at universities. The method of cognitive mapping allows us to systematically access the tacit exploitation potentials of research institutions, which is the prerequisite for potential exploitation.

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Corporate culture and the adverse impact of cultural differences on technology transfer

Corporate culture and the adverse impact of cultural differences on technology transfer
Thi Duc Nguyen Nguyen; Atsushi Aoyama
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, Vol. 12, No. 1/2/3 (2013) pp. 22 – 42
This study aims to determine the mechanism through which corporate culture produces potential advantages by efficiently minimising the impact of cultural differences on technology transfer performance. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modelling (SEM) multigroup analysis are used to analyse structured survey data from 223 Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries in Vietnam. The results indicate that when a company places greater value on learning, encouraging staff to participate in the decision-making process, transmitting accurate and timely internal and external information about business operations, accepting risk, promoting cooperation, and readily offering help, it achieves efficient technology transfer with reduced negative impact from cultural differences during the implementation process. These findings could offer insights to address the intracultural, intercultural, and transcultural innovation management practice issues faced by local and international executives.

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Technology transfer and innovation: exploring the multifaceted nature of this interaction

Technology transfer and innovation: exploring the multifaceted nature of this interaction
Barbara Bigliardi; Francesco Galati; Giuliano Marolla; Chiara Verbano
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, Vol. 12, No. 1/2/3 (2013) pp. 1 – 7
A key component in the success of industrial firms is the extent of their innovativeness. In recent decades, as a result of intense international competition, fragmented and demanding markets and rapidly changing technologies, companies are more and more recognising the importance of the ‘technology transfer’ process to benefit from the innovations introduced into the market. Moving from this increasing importance attributed to the technology transfer, the purpose of this special issue is to shed light on the main issue related to this matter. We begin this introductory paper by providing a brief overview of some theoretical reasons underlying the undeniable relevance of technology transfer for both companies and the society as a whole. We then introduce the six papers that are included in the special issue, thus revealing their respective contributions and their advancement of existing knowledge.

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International technology transfer: innovative quantitative tools

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International technology transfer: innovative quantitative tools
Houssam Eddine Bessam; Rainer Gadow
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, Vol. 12, No. 1/2/3 (2013) pp. 78 – 101
International technology transfer (ITT) including transfer of knowledge and technology between companies in industrialised countries and their partners in developing countries is not necessary always successful. This work based on the experiences of professionals from North African countries (Egypt and Algeria) is an effort to build mathematical models encompassing all project stages using the existing success/failure factors of technology transfer from the literature review as input variables in order to predict the performance of ITT projects as an output and to determine a set of best practices. The gathered data about realised projects were exploited for developing linear, nonlinear models using conventional statistical approaches and also fuzzy models. These models should be seen as complementary rather than as rivals. They allow not only the prediction of an ITT project performance but also may help for a better understanding of ITT process. The performance of an ITT project in this study is a set of five success dimensions for e.g. success at the macro level and success in short term at the level of the company. These dimensions are conflicting because the increase of one success could lead to decrease in another. Therefore the use of multi-objective optimisation theory was necessary in order to determine the optimum of Pareto offering a good combination of them. ACADO toolkit and MOEA framework were used in this study for calculating the optimum of Pareto.

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How do Indonesian industries perceive university-industry collaboration? Motivations, benefits and problems

How do Indonesian industries perceive university-industry collaboration? Motivations, benefits and problems
NuruI Indarti; Fathul Wahid
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, Vol. 12, No. 1/2/3 (2013) pp. 157 – 171
This study examines university-industry collaboration from the industry perspective. From a survey of 32 firms engaged in university-industry joint research funded by the Indonesian Government, we found various motivations to set up joint research with universities. These included accessing new ideas, getting involved in relevant research and accessing available research funding. A variety of benefits were enjoyed by industry, such as accessing new ideas and know-how from the university, improving product and process development, advancing the ability to provide better information to consumers/suppliers and improving R&D activities. However, industry partners perceived that their allocated investments did not pay off as expected and they were in doubt about the applicability or commercialisation potential of the research output. The findings also indicated that researchers were less likely to base research on the real problems faced by industry, but rather from an a priori perception or ideas they had in mind. Finally, recommendations were also provided.

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Managing joint R&D: an investigation into joint patent applications in Japan, USA and Europe

Publisher’s note: We can learn from this study.

Managing joint R&D: an investigation into joint patent applications in Japan, USA and Europe
Toshio Hashimoto; Yoshitoshi Tanaka; Angela Adrian
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, Vol. 11, No. 3/4 (2012) pp. 137 – 155
This research focuses on joint patent applications which have been produced from joint research and development (R&D) collaborations. There has been limited past research in this area. This research compares and analyses joint patent applications from Japan, USA and Europe, clarifying the differences and features for successful joint R&D through statistical analysis between these regions. The most important factors are the field of technology, the situation of cooperation, the difference of patent law and its practice in each region, the conditions of the joint R&D agreement, and the strategy for joint R&D. A conclusion will be drawn: the more advantageous the regulation of co-owned patents is, the greater the number of joint patent applications is filed in that country’s patent office.

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University professors and early stage research commercialisation: an empirical test of the knowledge corridor theory

University professors and early stage research commercialisation: an empirical test of the knowledge corridor theory
Jonas Gabrielsson; Diamanto Politis; Joakim Tell
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, Vol. 11, No. 3/4 (2012) pp. 213 – 233
In this study, we test the knowledge corridor theory as an explanation of university professors’ involvement in the early stages of research commercialisation. A statistical analysis was made of a sample of full professors from the engineering, natural sciences and medical faculties at a large public university in Sweden. The analysis shows that not only entrepreneurial experience but also private sector work experience significantly influence the ability to identify and develop business ideas based on research. Moreover, the analysis shows that research-based business idea generation increases faster for professors with private sector work experience who as well have more time for research in their positions.

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